You will hear the following sentence or the like in Turkey often; one medium sugar and two little sugars. We Turks understand immediately, what is the meaning of this sentence. Ones desiring coffee.
Turkish coffee with dizzy smell contains so many traditions from tiny beans, until being poured to a coffee cup. Comments are made about the future by looking at the famous Turkish coffee signs, left in the cup after drinking. No sugar, with sugar, little sugar or medium sugar no matter how, the fine dining chats are punctuated with it.
The most important reason of the demand for coffe in the Sufi culture is holding open mind and sleep-relieving properties of the caffeine substance in the coffee.
Coffee is the bean of a fruit from the Coffea genus, belongs to the Rubiaceae genera. Two of the type used in coffee production in numerous species of Coffea; these are ''Coffea Arabica'' and ''Coffea Canephora''. It requires features such as volcanic soils, tropical regions, and moderate humidity for growing . Those used in making coffee from these plants are returning to red while getting ripen. Coffee is obtained from the bean in this fruit with a thick crust.
The purpose of coffee processors is balance. There must be a compatible total of coffee components; consistency, aroma and flavor. Formulation of their blends is kept as secret by processors. But the basic principle is combine the soft consistency beans with the thick beans or sour taste beans with the fruity beans. For example, one of the oldest and most popular formula combine the mocha's a fineness and excess softness with the striker and full consistency of Javanese coffee. Processing business passes from father to son and formulas are often inherited from previous generations.
Roasting, grinding,cooking and serving are the traditional process of coffee. Turkish coffee is made with medium roasted and ground coffee boiling in water with or without sugar. Also being frothy is desirable. Also, if coffee made in copper or brass pot is very acceptable.
The serving of Turkish coffee is completely a presentation in itself. The catering style of coffee, is an indication of dearness, respect and value given to guests in Turkish society. Coffee service, made in a ceremonial mood with special coffee cups.
Turkish coffee is served with water and Turkish delight in beautiful coffee sets usually made from Kutahya or Iznik porcelain. Turkish coffee continues to be one of the most important symbols of Turkish culture with cooking fineness, nobility in the presentation, porcelain cup with plate, and copper pot.
The Story of Coffee
From the 16th century, coffee drinking habit is spread over a very wide range in the Islamic geography. The homeland of this interesting drink is high plateaus of Abyssinia which located in the south of Ethiopia. The next stop of the coffee story is Yemen which has begun in Ethiopia.
Eastern history of coffee is based on much earlier than three-centuries old western coffee. Coffee has spread throughout the world, after reaching to the Ottoman Empire from the Arabian Peninsula. Turkish ''kahve'' word passed as cafe, coffee, koffie, caffe to European languages. After spreading over a wide geographical area, coffee has become to one of the most important actors of everyday life.
During the Ottoman Empire, in 1500s, coffee, which began to be brought to the Eminonu district of Istanbul from Egypt, Alexandria and Yemen, took the name of Turkish coffee with the cooking method on pot, discovered by Turks. The Spice Bazaar shopkeepers in Istanbul took a major role in the propagation of coffee in the world.
The first articles about coffee was written by Pietro della valle and Prospero Alpino in 1592. Then, several traveler authors, who came to Istanbul, began to mention of coffee. So, the first meeting of the coffee and European was through the Ottoman Empire.
Turkish coffee, for the first time was taken to Paris, by the ambassador of Sultan Mehmed IV in 1664 and drank in Château Louis XIV.
Europe acquainted with the consumptive amount of coffee for the first time in 1683, during the Battle of Vienna by the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman armies left behind plenty of Turkish coffee while withdrew from the gates of Vienna. Until then, the Europeans who had not meet with coffee yet, due to the elimination of vineyards because of war, could not produce wine and became frequenter of Turkish Coffee. ''Blue Bottle'' coffee house which opened in Vienna in 1703 was the first coffee shop of Europe.
Coffee was transported to Italy by the Venetians in the same period. Through learning Venetians coffee firing, began to open coffee houses in Italy. And then London, Paris and Germany Leipzig cities joined the coffee movement in Europe. Coffee has begun to be planted in Europe, towards the end of the 17th century. The first coffee seedling planted in the botanical gardens (Hortus Botanicus, Amsterdam) in Europe. In the following years, Amsterdam became the capital of coffee seedling commerce. In 1714, coffee seedlings that sent as gift to Louis XIV of France from Amsterdam, were planted to the Palace of Versailles gardens.
The coffee has reached to French Guiana from Paris. Thus, increased and went to South America. After the French Revolution of 1789, French coffee traders, who went to Brazil to escape from the Haiti natives, has spread the coffee culture in this region. After that, coffee became to the major source of exports in countries such as Mexico, Guatemala,Colombia and Venezuela by spreading from Brazil. Today, it is done in Brazil 90% of world production.
Coffee seedling is a product that delicate and requires care. Next to coffee seedlings, there must be trees to protect them from the sun and wind. It called as coffee mother, these protective plants, in Java. This delicate plant, when searching for specific climatic conditions where it went, also changing the nature and gives product in different breeds and fragrance according to the region wherever it planted.
⦁ It said that, coffee beans was eaten by pouring salt on and mixing with oil, in the eighth century.
⦁ Coffee beans was used as bread in southern Ethiopia at the beginning of the tenth century. Coffee beans were made into flour, then kneaded with water, cooked and eaten.
⦁ There are various legends about convertion of coffee into a drink. For example, according to a legend; In the year 1300, a shepherd named Kaldi and living in Kaffa region of Ethiopia has seen a night in the moonlight, his goats got into motion after eating some green and red fruits. Shepherd was very surprised to this miracle. He boiled those fruits in the water and drank. and realized that his energy increased, heartbeats accelerated.
⦁ A similar legend is expressed as follows; shepherd of the Christian monastery in Yemen had complained to the monks that the animals do not sleep all the night. Animals were leaping and jumping all night and there were no signs of fatigue on them. The administrator of the monastery, related the behavior of the animals with the things they eat. Thereupon, the shepherd and two monks set out to see what happened. They came across a plant species in the bush,where the herd grazing, that they have never seen before. They plucked a few branches of this dark green bush with small white flowers and prepared a drink by boiling the fruit of these branches. With this drink they spend all night lively and cheerful, without sleeping. After that day, monks, fell into a habit of drinking coffee in prayer nights and vigils. This drink then drew the attention of traders who came to the monastery as a guest. Traders have begun to trade of coffee beans. Thus, the coffee began spreading eastward.